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新开机构锐减 难道说多德·弗兰克法案扼杀了美国银行业?

来源:未央网 2015-08-03 09:47 收藏

如今,新技术与社交媒体新创企业几乎每周都有新血注入,而美国银行业则与之相反,迟迟没有新成员加入。近日报道显示,美国2010年后仅有三家新开业的金融机构。

如今,新技术与社交媒体新创企业几乎每周都有新血注入,而美国银行业则与之相反,迟迟没有新成员加入。近日报道显示,美国2010年后仅有三家新开业的金融机构。

现有银行开设新分支机构的速度也急剧下降。1990年到2007年,平均每年有500家新分支机构开业,而2010年起,这个数字则降低到了每年300家。举个例子来说,两年前美国银行共有5328家分支,而到了今年这个数字则下降到4789家。摩根大通减少了2%的分支机构;花旗集团则宣布计划关闭在十多个国家的分支。

其中一个原因可能是2010年出台的《多德-弗兰克华尔街改革和消费者保护法》(Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act)法案出台之前,银行业甚为活跃,负责审批新银行的联邦存款保险局计算,每年约有100家新银行进入市场。

与此同时,联邦储备利率最近几年却维持在极低的水平,银行很难获利。联邦储备部的经济学家们则估计,新银行75-80%的下降并是因为收到了任何类型的监管,而可能维持正常业务的一部分。最近,有越来越多的人选择Lending Club这样的非银行P2P贷款公司进行借贷。这些平台完全依靠在线操作,没有实体分支机构。Lending Club等平台并不需要银行那样苛刻的条件。

多德-弗兰克法案的出台是为了阻止类似2008年金融危机事件再次发生。受法案影响的主要是金融机构,如银行和他们的客户。法案在美联储体系下设立消费者金融保护局(CFPA),监控公司表现,降低金融机构”大而不倒”问题出现的可能性。据Investopedia称,法案赋予CFPA干预并分割可能对整体金融系统带来重大风险的大型银行的权利,同时有权对濒临破产的金融机构进行快速清算和重组。法案中的沃尔克规则(the Volcker Rule)限制银行投资于对冲基金和私募股权等衍生金融产品的交易。

多德-弗兰克法案还要求银行增加现金储备以低于金融危机,同时要求银行对贷款业务增加更多限制,这显然降低了银行利润。本质上讲,该法案是为了防止无力偿债的大型银行影响整个全球金融系统,但规模较小一些的银行也受到了波及。

律师事务所White & Case合伙人、曾在纽约联储任法律顾问30年的Ernest Patrikis向表示,”多德-弗兰克法案怕是有些过犹不及。”


As new technology and social media startups pop up almost every week, one U.S. industry has been lagging behind: banking. Since 2010, only three new banks have opened in the U.S., CNNMoney reported Wednesday.

There has also been a sharp decline in existing banks opening new branches. From 1990 to 2007, typically 500 new branches opened a year, but since 2010 that number has dropped to under 300 branches a year. Bank of America, for example, had 5,328 U.S. branches two years ago, but now that number has dropped to roughly 4,789. JPMorgan Chase also reported a decrease of 2 percent in their branches, and Citigroup has announced plans that they are leaving over a dozen countries.

One explanation for the lack of new banks in recent years might be the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, which was enacted in 2010. Before the act was passed, the banking industry was spurring, and over 100 new banks popped onto the scene every year, according to data from the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, which is responsible for approving new banks.

At the same time, banks are having a hard time profiting because the Federal Reserves have kept interest rates extremely low in recent years. Economists at the Federal Reserve, however, estimate that 75 to 80 percent of the decline in new banks is not tied to any sort of regulation and probably would have happened as a normal part of business. Recently, there has been rising popularity in bank alternatives such as peer-to-peer lending companies, like Lending Club, which is operated entirely online with no branch infrastructure. Companies like Lending Club are not held to the same requirements as banks.

The Dodd-Frank regulation was passed in an attempt to prevent events similar to the 2008 financial crisis from occurring again. The act primarily affected financial institutions, such as banks, and their customers. It established new government agencies that monitored the performance of companies that were often deemed “too big to fail.” The newly established agencies also had the power to break up large banks that might pose a risk to the financial system because of their size, and could also quickly liquidate or restructure firms that they found too financially weak, according to Investopedia. Another element of the Act, the Volcker Rule, restricted the way in which banks could invest and regulate trading in derivatives.

Dodd-Frank also required banks to have more cash on hand in case of a financial crisis and placed more restrictions on lending, which made it harder for banks to profit. Essentially, the regulation was meant to prevent large, insolvent banks from affecting the entire global financial system, but the regulation impacted smaller banks as well.

“Dodd-Frank was like the football players jumping on top of the pile,” said Ernest Patrikis, a partner at law firm White and Case who spent 30 years at the New York Federal Reserve monitoring banks, CNNMoney reported.


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